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Strength training and building muscle can help you manage these newfound health risks and give you a sense of stability, strength, and independence. Building and maintaining muscle mass is especially important as you get older and can lead to physical and mental benefits.
You lose 5% to 8% of your lean muscle every 10 years after you pass 30 years old, and that percentage increases once you turn 60. Women over 50 need lean muscle to maintain muscle strength, bone strength, and to stabilize the joints, which can prevent injury.
Muscles need to be repaired following injury to maintain their strength and function. It has long been known that male sex hormones like testosterone and related compounds have potent muscle-building action. The current University of Minnesota study shows that in females, stem cells in the muscle, or satellite cells, which are responsible for generating new muscle after injury, depend on estrogen for their function and reproduction. This is via a special class of estrogen receptors on these cells, called ERα.
Satellite cells are located near the cell membrane of a muscle cell, and are activated only when they are required to reproduce following a muscle injury. Like other stem cells, they can then differentiate to form mature muscle cells, while a group of them remain undifferentiated to maintain a pool of quiescent satellite cells. This is called self-renewal. When these cells are lacking, as in some mutant cells, skeletal muscle regeneration is severely affected.
There is an age-related drop in satellite cell number, both in men and in women. This is attributed to both cell-linked and environment-linked factors, among which is the sudden drop in estrogen levels in menopausal women. Estrogen deficiency is known to reduce the bulk of skeletal muscle and the maximum muscular force in women. It also impairs muscle recovery after injury.
The present study used a mouse model to compare muscle stem cells with respect to their estrogen exposure. One group of mice had their ovaries removed, limiting their exposure to estrogen. In another group, the mice had no estrogen receptors on their muscle stem cells, preventing estrogen effects. The number and function of satellite cells were evaluated in five types of muscles.
Researchers found that without estrogen stimulation, the number of muscle stem cells in both groups of mice dropped by an astonishing 30% to 60%. This continued to decline with the duration of estrogen deprivation. The decline was due to the entry of these cells into pathways leading to programmed cell death or apoptosis. The cells that were left were slow to reproduce and differentiate into new muscle fibers, resulting in a loss of muscle strength after injury. The response to injury was not affected by estrogen loss until the 21st day, when the strength was shown to be less by almost 20%. After a second episode of injury, the loss of strength recovery was more marked at 23% to almost 40% between day 28 and day 42 following injury.
Simultaneously, researchers looked at data obtained by Finnish scientists from muscle biopsies taken from a group of women just before and just after they entered menopause. These results showed that human satellite cell number fluctuated significantly in relation to variations in the serum estrogen levels.
Estrogen replacement therapy was first touted to help sustain muscle and bone health after menopause. However, the risk of estrogen-dependent cancers such as that of the uterus and breast made this an undesirable option. Instead, the present research shows that certain selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) can provide differential estrogen actions in various estrogen-responsive tissues, depending on the environment. These can be used for selective ERα receptor stimulation in muscle stem cells, without affecting breast or endometrial tissue. This provides a potential safe therapeutic option to help older women retain strong muscles after menopause.
Thomas, Liji. (2019, July 19). Low estrogen causes muscle loss in women after menopause. News-Medical. Retrieved on April 02, 2023 from -medical.net/news/20190719/Low-estrogen-causes-muscle-loss-in-women-after-menopause.aspx.
Thomas, Liji. "Low estrogen causes muscle loss in women after menopause". News-Medical. -medical.net/news/20190719/Low-estrogen-causes-muscle-loss-in-women-after-menopause.aspx. (accessed April 02, 2023).
Thomas, Liji. 2019. Low estrogen causes muscle loss in women after menopause. News-Medical, viewed 02 April 2023, -medical.net/news/20190719/Low-estrogen-causes-muscle-loss-in-women-after-menopause.aspx.
So, prioritize strength training in order to maintain muscle mass, improve sleep, regulate blood sugar levels and make changes to your diet based on your nutritional needs. (We suggest starting with your protein intake!)
Slow-motion strength training (SMST) can produce cardiovascular conditioning, fat loss, and muscle strength gain. When doing SMST, there is no need to do cardio or aerobics. But if it's something you like to do, then choosing one that is most enjoyable and safest on the body is ideal.
The chest press is a highly effective way to strengthen the pectorals (chest muscles), triceps, and anterior deltoids. These muscles are critical in lifting movements. Your anterior deltoids are responsible for lifting your arms in front of you.
These main muscles targeted by the Leg Curl are largely responsible for the appearance of your thighs and lower legs and train the muscles that are partly responsible for walking, squatting and bending the knee.
The hamstrings contract to provide knee flexion, which is the technical name for the movementperformed during the Leg Curl. Each hamstring is a group of four muscles that start on your pelvis (around the bottom of your buttocks), cover the backs of your thighs, and attach to the lower leg, just below your knee. The hamstrings have two major functions: to flex your knee and pull your thigh backward (hip extension).
Compound Row: Targets upper back muscles. Client performs an isometric hold, contracting the primary muscles and holding for approximately 2 minutes. This allows her to focus on working the major muscles without straining the neck, a common side effect of this exercise.
Hip Abduction: Targets outer gluteal muscles. Client performs the exercise for approximately 2 minutes, at a slightly lower intensity level to account for labrum tear and arthritis. Back support is included to adjust for spinal injuries.
Hip Adduction: Targets the inner thigh muscles. Client performs an isometric hold, contracting the primary muscles and holding for approximately 2 minutes. This allows her to maintain strength without moving the affected joint (hip)
Abdominal Machine: Targets abdominals. Client performs an isometric hold, contracting the abdominals for approximately 1:30-2 minutes. This helps her to engage and fatigue the muscles without overextension or flexion of the spine.
Leg Press: Targets all major muscles in the lower body: glutes, quads, hamstrings, calves. Client performs the exercise with a limited range of motion (sitting further away from the footplate) to account for spinal injuries and knee injuries. Lumbar support is used.
Compound Row: Targets upper back muscles and arms and helps with *pulling motion. Client performs with palms facing toward each other to keep shoulder joints closed, decreased range of motion (5-hole gap ~ 5-inch decrease).
Hip Adduction: Targets the inner thigh muscles. Client performs an isometric hold, contracting the primary muscles and holding for approximately 1-2 minutes. This allows her to maintain strength without moving the affected joint (hip).
Abdominal Machine: Targets abdominals. Client performs the exercise with legs out from behind the stabilizing pads and lifts knees slightly up toward the chest. This helps to prevent any additional strain on the knee and can help achieve better muscle-mind connection.
Leg Extension: Targets thighs and muscles surrounding the knee. Client performs exercise normally but does so with caution to avoid any knee pain. This exercise is particularly important to help strengthen her legs for walking and maintain strength around the knee.
Leg Press: Targets all major muscles in the lower body: glutes, quads, hamstrings, calves. Feet are placed higher up on the footplate, creating a more open and easier angle on the knee joints. Client occasionally performs an isometric hold toward the lower turnaround of the exercise when experiencing pain or pulling sensations in the knee. This exercise is performed each workout to help aid her goal of overall strengthening and fat loss.
The best exercises for women over 60 are compound movements that target the biggest muscle groups in the body, such as leg press and lat pulldown. These help to build and maintain muscle mass, increase bone density, and help with fat loss.
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